Amid the flashes and the thrills of a videogame, something profound happens: a player comes to the game and together, they collaboratively create an experience (Holmes 2004). While this is true of any media to varying degrees (indeed, all phenomena are ultimately “experienced” and therefore interpreted, a co-creation of event and experience), a videogame is a unique text, for in a videogame the player is a necessary actor through which the game “happens.” Most analyses of a videogame must confront this fundamental circumstance: that the player and the game interact. Certainly, the notion of interactivity is unsettled and contested (see Gee, 2010; Turkle, 1995; Aarseth, 1997; Juul, 2005, and Wilson, 2004 for an example of the variety of interpretations). For the purpose of this analysis, I define interactivity as the condition through which the player controls certain events within the game world, and that this world informs the choices made by the gamer. So, a player uses an interface (actually, several—physical as well as conceptual) to influence the outcome of the afforded design of the game; and, depending on how previous actions affect the game world, the player then uses this interface to make additional choices, and the cycle repeats.
What are these interfaces, and how do they make the game possible? Continue reading